What is Object Oriented Programming (OOPs)??
OOPs

What is Object Oriented Programming (OOPs)??

Object Oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that relies on the concept of classes and objects. It is used to structure a software program into simple, reusable pieces of code blueprints (usually called classes), which are used to create individual instances of objects.

Object Oriented Programming Languages:

  • JAVA
  • C++
  • Python
  • JavaScript
  • Ruby
  • Visual Basic.NET
  • Scala
  • PHP

Object Oriented Programming (OOPs) Concepts:

  1. Object
  2. Class
  3. Polymorphism
  4. Abstraction
  5. Encapsulation
  6. Inheritance

Object

An object, in object-oriented programming (OOP), is an abstract data type created by a developer. It can include multiple properties and methods and may even contain other objects. In most programming languages, objects are defined as classes.

Class

A class is an extensible program-code-template for creating objects, providing initial values for state (member variables) and implementations of behavior (member functions or methods). In these languages, a class that creates classes is called a meta-class.

Polymorphism

Polymorphism is the ability of a programming language to present the same interface for several different underlying data types. Polymorphism is the ability of different objects to respond in a unique way to the same message.

Abstraction

Abstraction means displaying only essential information and hiding the details. Data abstraction refers to providing only essential information about the data to the outside world, hiding the background details or implementation. For e.g., while driving a car, only driver known how to move car steering, and the mechanical working is hidden from him like how the car start internally etc.

Encapsulation

Encapsulation is defined as the wrapping up of data under a single unit. It is the mechanism that binds together code and the data it manipulates. Another way to think about encapsulation is, it is a protective shield that prevents the data from being accessed by the code outside this shield.

Inheritance

Inheritance can be defined as the process where one class acquires the properties (methods and fields) of another. The class which inherits the properties of other is known as subclass (derived class, child class) and the class whose properties are inherited is known as superclass (base class, parent class).

Benefits of OOPs:

  • OOP models complex things as reproducible, simple structures.
  • Reusable, OOP objects can be used across programs.
  • Allows for class-specific behavior through polymorphism.
  • Easier to debug, classes often contain all applicable information to them.
  • Secure, protects information through encapsulation.

Summary

OOPs is a very powerful concepts used in many languages, and make the interface user-friendly. It will continue to play a crucial role within the realm of software development.

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Shruti Goel

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